Title 47: Commission On Human Rights

Chapter 1: Practice and Procedure

Subchapter A: General*

§ 1-01 Scope of Rules.

These rules are intended to carry out the provisions of Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Administrative Code of the City of New York, Human Rights Law (“HRL”), and the policies and procedures of the Commission on Human Rights in connection therewith, as authorized by HRL § 8-105(11) and § 8-117.

§ 1-02 Organization of Commission.

In order to carry out its various statutory responsibilities in a fair and impartial fashion, the Commission has separated its functions into discreet bureaus and offices, each of which reports to the Chair of the agency. In addition to the Chair and the Commissioners, the following components of the Commission are directly involved in the enforcement of the HRL:

  1. Law Enforcement Bureau. The Law Enforcement Bureau is charged with the Commission’s investigatory and prosecutorial functions. Where an action is authorized or required to be taken by the Law Enforcement Bureau, such action shall be taken by the Deputy Commissioner for Law Enforcement, such Law Enforcement Bureau staff as the Deputy Commissioner shall designate, or such person as may be appointed by the Chair of the Commission.
  2. Office of General Counsel. The Office of General Counsel serves as counsel to the Chair and to the Commissioners. Where an action is authorized or required to be taken by the Office of General Counsel, such action shall be taken by the General Counsel, such staff of the Office of General Counsel as the General Counsel shall designate, or such person as may be appointed by the Chair of the Commission.
  3. Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution. The Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution provides mediation and conciliation services in connection with complaints that have been filed. Where an action is authorized or required to be taken by the Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution, such action shall be taken by the Deputy Commissioner for Mediation and Conflict Resolution, such staff of the Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution as the Deputy Commissioner shall designate, or such person as may be appointed by the Chair of the Commission.

§ 1-03 Definitions and Construction.

For purposes of this chapter,

Calculation of dates. A number of days specified in these Rules means calendar days exclusive of the calendar day from which the calculation is made.

Complainant. Complainant shall mean a person who has filed a complaint pursuant to these Rules.

Discriminatory harassment or violence. The procedures set forth in these Rules which apply to unlawful discriminatory practices shall apply with like effect to acts of discriminatory harassment or violence as set forth in Chapter 6 of Title 8 of the Administrative Code except that no complaint shall be filed with respect to an act of discriminatory harassment or violence unless the act complained of occurred on or after January 22, 1993.

Filing and proof of service. Wherever these Rules require that a paper be filed, such requirement shall be construed to require the filing of proof of prior service of the paper on the persons required to be served by the section together with the paper. Each Bureau and Office of the Commission shall retain proof of service of each paper served under these Rules.

Investigatory file. For the purposes of these Rules, the Law Enforcement Bureau’s “Investigatory File” shall be construed to include only the factual information, as opposed to opinions or legal analysis contained in those writings made or gathered by the Bureau during the course of an investigation. Any information derived from an investigation pursuant to Subchapter D of this chapter including the names and other identifying information of witnesses who request anonymity is confidential; provided, however, that the Law Enforcement Bureau may be required to disclose the names of such witnesses in the course of an administrative hearing or a civil action.

Means of service of papers. Except where otherwise specified, service of a paper means any method of service described by § 2103 of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules.

Necessary party. Necessary party shall mean any person deemed by the Law Enforcement Bureau or any person determined by an Administrative Law Judge to be a person without whom complete relief could not be ordered by the Commission or a person whose interests would be materially affected by the Commission’s determination of the case. Any person deemed or determined to be a necessary party shall be treated as a party for all purposes under these rules and the HRL.

Papers to be served upon counsel. Whenever a person required to be served with a paper pursuant to these Rules has duly informed the Law Enforcement Bureau as required by these rules that such person is represented by counsel, service shall be effected upon the person’s counsel in lieu of service on the person himself or herself.

Party. Unless the context requires otherwise, the term “party” shall refer to the Law Enforcement Bureau, to respondents, to those complainants that shall have intervened pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-75 of this chapter and to necessary parties.

Person. The term “person” shall have the meaning ascribed thereto in subdivision one of HRL 8-102. The term “person” shall be construed to include associations, organizations or groups that assert the civil rights of protected classes.

Probable Cause. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall find probable cause exists to credit the allegations of a complaint that an unlawful discriminatory practice has been or is being committed by a respondent where a reasonable person, looking at the evidence as a whole, could reach the conclusion that it is more likely than not that the unlawful discriminatory practice was committed.

Respondent. Respondent shall mean a person who has been charged in a complaint filed pursuant to these Rules with having committed an unlawful discriminatory practice.

Rules. Rules shall mean the provisions of Chapter 1 of Title 47 of the Rules of the City of New York.

§ 1-04 Power Delegated to the Chair of the Commission to Propose Rules

The Commission delegates to the Chair of the Commission authority to propose rules prior to their final adoption by the Commission pursuant to § 8-105(11) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York and § 905(e)(9) of the New York City Charter.

Subchapter B: Complaints, Answers and Notification of Obligations

§ 1-11 Complaints Generally.

(a)  Who may file.

   (1) Any person claiming to be aggrieved by an unlawful discriminatory practice may in person, by his or her attorney, or by a representative acting with appropriate legal authority make, sign and file a written verified complaint with the Law Enforcement Bureau in accordance with these rules.

   (2) The Law Enforcement Bureau may make, sign, and file a verified complaint alleging that a person has committed an unlawful discriminatory practice.

  1. Form of complaints. All complaints shall be typewritten, and must be signed and verified by the person making the complaint or in the case of a Commission-initiated complaint, by the Commission. A complaint initiated by a person other than the Commission shall be signed before a notary public or other person authorized by law to administer oaths. Each complaint shall recite the name of each complainant and respondent in a caption in the following form:

CITY OF NEW YORK COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

—————————————————x

In the Matter of the Complaint of: Verified Complaint
   
Complainant, Case No.
-against-  
Respondent.  

~

—————————————————x

  1. Contents of complaint. A complaint shall contain the following:

   (1) the full name and address of the person or persons making the complaint or such other designation as appropriate. Each such person shall be denominated a complainant. If a complaint is prepared by a complainant’s attorney, the attorney’s name, address, telephone number and facsimile number, if any, shall also appear on the complaint;

   (2) the full name and address, where known, of the person or persons alleged to have committed an unlawful discriminatory practice. Each such person shall be denominated a respondent;

   (3) a statement of the specific facts constituting the alleged unlawful discriminatory practice. The statement shall contain, to the extent known to the complainant, the exact or approximate date or dates of the alleged discriminatory practices and, if the alleged discriminatory practices are of a continuing nature, the dates between which those continuing acts of discrimination are alleged to have occurred; and the addresses or approximate locations of any places where the acts complained of are alleged to have occurred; and

   (4) whether complainant has previously filed any other civil or administrative action alleging an unlawful discriminatory practice with respect to the allegations of discrimination which are the subject of the complaint. In the event of a prior filing, a statement of the title, docket or similar identifying number, and forum before which such other claim was filed, and a statement of the status or disposition of such other action or proceeding should be made.

  1. What constitutes filing of a complaint or answer. A complaint or answer is filed when it is accepted for filing by the Office of the Docketing Clerk of the Law Enforcement Bureau.
  2. Procedure upon receipt of complaint. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall accept complaints for filing, note the date of filing on the complaint, and assign a complaint number to the complaint. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall thereafter serve by mail a copy of the filed complaint upon each respondent and necessary party and shall advise the respondent of his or her procedural rights and obligations.

§ 1-12 Commission-Initiated Complaints.

(a)  Procedure upon filing of a Commission-initiated complaint. Upon filing of a Commission-initiated complaint, the Law Enforcement Bureau shall immediately note the date of filing on the complaint, and assign a complaint number to the complaint. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall thereafter serve a copy of the filed complaint upon each respondent and shall advise the respondent of his/her procedural rights and obligations.
  1. Probable cause. The filing of Commission-initiated complaint shall be deemed to be a determination of probable cause.

§ 1-13 Amendments to Complaints.

A complaint may be amended as of right at any time before the referral of the complaint to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings (hereinafter OATH) pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71. Subsequent to the referral of a complaint to OATH a complaint may be amended by application to the presiding Administrative Law Judge.

§ 1-14 Answer.

(a)  Time for filing. The respondent shall file a verified answer with the Law Enforcement Bureau within 30 days of having been served with a complaint or an amendment thereof.
  1. Form and content of answer. The answer shall be verified as to the truth of the statements therein, and the respondent shall specifically admit, deny, or explain each of the facts alleged in the complaint, unless the respondent is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief, in which case the respondent shall so state, and such statement shall operate as a denial. Any allegation in the complaint not specifically denied or explained shall be deemed admitted unless good cause to the contrary is shown. All affirmative defenses and mitigating factors set forth in HRL 8-107(13)(d), 8-107(13)(e), and 8-126(b) shall be stated separately in the answer.
  2. Counterclaims and cross-claims. The respondent shall not be permitted to interpose either a counterclaim or cross-claim in the answer.
  3. Extension of time to answer. A respondent may apply to the Law Enforcement Bureau for additional time to file an answer. Such a request shall be granted for good cause shown.
  4. Amendment of answer. A respondent may amend its answer to the original complaint at any time prior to the referral of the complaint to OATH pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71. An amendment to an answer subsequent to the referral of a complaint to OATH may be made by application to the presiding Administrative Law Judge.
  5. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the following shall apply with respect to complaints originally filed with the Commission prior to September 16, 1991 and amendments thereof whether filed before or after September 16, 1991:

   (1) A respondent may but is not required to file a verified answer to the complaint. If a respondent elects not to file an answer to the complaint, all allegations of the complaint shall be deemed denied.

   (2) A respondent must file a verified answer if the respondent has or intends to assert affirmative defenses to the charges set forth in the complaint.

   (3) Where a respondent files an answer, any allegation of the complaint which is not answered or upon which respondent alleges insufficient information shall be deemed denied.

   (4) An answer may be filed at any time after service of the complaint and no later than 15 days after service of a determination of probable cause.

§ 1-15 Representation.

Complainants and respondents may be represented by counsel. Counsel shall file with the Law Enforcement Bureau a Notice of Appearance which shall recite the person or persons for whom the attorney appears, and the attorney’s name, address, and telephone and fax number.

§ 1-16 Change of Address.

Complainants, respondents, and their legal representatives are under a continuing obligation to notify the Law Enforcement Bureau of any change in their addresses.

Subchapter C: Withdrawals and Dismissals

§ 1-21 Withdrawal of Complaints.

At any time prior to the service of a notice that a complaint has been referred to the OATH, a complainant may withdraw a complaint that has been filed.

§ 1-22 Dismissal of Complaint.

(a)  Dismissal for administrative convenience. The Law Enforcement Bureau may, in its discretion, dismiss a complaint for administrative convenience at any time prior to the taking of testimony at a hearing. Administrative convenience shall include, but not be limited to, the following circumstances:

   (1) Law Enforcement Bureau personnel have been unable to locate the complainant after diligent efforts to do so;

   (2) the complainant has repeatedly failed to appear at mutually agreed-upon appointments with the Law Enforcement Bureau or the Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution personnel, or is unwilling to meet with the Law Enforcement Bureau or the Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution personnel, provide requested documentation, or to attend a hearing;

   (3) the complainant has repeatedly engaged in conduct which is disruptive to the orderly functioning of the Law Enforcement Bureau;

   (4) where the complainant is unwilling to accept a reasonable proposed conciliation agreement;

   (5) prosecution of the complaint will not serve the public interest. Without limitation, this shall include those circumstances where it is not likely that further investigation will result in a finding of probable cause or where the passage of time or other factors have materially impaired the ability of a respondent to defend against the allegations of the complaint; and

   (6) the complainant requests such dismissal, one hundred eighty days have elapsed since the filing of the complaint with the Law Enforcement Bureau, and the Law Enforcement Bureau finds (a) that the complaint has not been actively investigated and (b) that the respondent will not be unduly prejudiced thereby.

  1. Mandatory dismissal for administrative convenience. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall dismiss a complaint for administrative convenience at any time prior to the filing of an answer by the respondent if the complainant requests such dismissal, unless the Law Enforcement Bureau has conducted an investigation of the complaint or has engaged the parties in conciliation after the time the complaint was filed.
  2. Dismissal because the complaint is not within the jurisdiction of the Commission. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall dismiss a complaint in whole or in part where it concludes that the complaint or a portion thereof is not within the jurisdiction of the Commission.
  3. Dismissal for lack of probable cause. If, after investigation the Law Enforcement Bureau determines that probable cause does not exist to believe that the respondent has engaged or is engaging in an unlawful discriminatory practice, the Bureau shall dismiss the complaint in whole or in part as to such respondent.
  4. Notification of dismissal. When the Law Enforcement Bureau makes a determination pursuant to this section, it shall promptly serve each complainant, respondent, and necessary party with an order dismissing the complaint in whole or in part.
  5. Review of order of dismissal. A complainant or respondent aggrieved by an order of dismissal made pursuant to this section may apply to the Chair for review of such order within 30 days of the service of such order by serving a notice of application for review on all other complainants and respondents, the Law Enforcement Bureau and any necessary parties, and by filing such notice with the Office of General Counsel.

Subchapter D: Investigatory Procedures

§ 1-31 Policy.

The procedures to be followed in investigative proceedings shall be such as in the discretion of the Law Enforcement Bureau will best facilitate accurate, orderly, and thorough fact-finding.

§ 1-32 Subpoenas.

The Law Enforcement Bureau may issue and serve subpoenas ad testificandum and subpoenas duces tecum upon any person. Proceedings to enforce, quash, fix conditions, or modify subpoenas shall be governed by Article 23 of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules.

§ 1-33 Investigative Record-Keeping.

(a) The Law Enforcement Bureau shall have the authority to make demands for the preservation of records and for the continuation of the practice of making and keeping records permitted by HRL 8-114(b). The demand shall require that such records be made available for inspection by the Law Enforcement Bureau and/or be filed with the Law Enforcement Bureau.
  1. Any person upon whom a demand has been made may assert an objection to the demand within seven days after service of the demand by serving such objection upon the Law Enforcement Bureau and filing such objection with the Office of General Counsel. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall have seven days from service of the objection to serve such person with a written response to the objection and to file such response with the Office of General Counsel. The Chair shall issue an order on said demand and objection.

§ 1-34 Availability of Investigatory Materials.

Upon an order of the Law Enforcement Bureau dismissing the complaint, complainant and respondent may examine the factual documentation in the investigatory file.

§ 1-35 Pre-Complaint Investigations.

In addition to conducting investigations of allegations contained in complaints filed pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-11 and 47 RCNY § 1-12, the Law Enforcement Bureau may investigate on its own initiative possible violations of the HRL.

Subchapter E: Determination of Whether Probable Cause Exists

§ 1-51 Basis of Determination.

The Law Enforcement Bureau shall find probable cause exists to credit the allegations of a complaint that an unlawful discriminatory practice has been or is being committed by a respondent where a reasonable person, looking at the evidence as a whole, could reach the conclusion that it is more likely than not that the unlawful discriminatory practice was committed.

§ 1-52 Notice of Determination.

The Law Enforcement Bureau shall serve a written notice of determination upon complainant and respondent. Determinations which state that probable cause has been found not to exist and that dismiss the complaint shall state the reasons for the Law Enforcement Bureau’s conclusion.

§ 1-53 Review of Determination.

A determination that probable cause exists to credit some or all of the allegations of a complaint that an unlawful discriminatory practice has been or is being committed is not reviewable. A determination that probable cause does not exist to credit some or all of the allegations of a complaint that an unlawful discriminatory practice has been or is being committed, and that the complaint is accordingly dismissed in whole or in part, is reviewable in accordance with subdivision (f) of 47 RCNY § 1-22 of this Chapter.

Subchapter F: Mediation and Conciliation

§ 1-61 Conciliation Agreements.

The Law Enforcement Bureau, complainant, respondent, and other necessary parties may at any time after the filing of a complaint agree to a conciliated resolution of a complaint.

  1. Form and Content. Every conciliation agreement shall contain an acknowledgment of each complainant’s and respondent’s execution of the agreement. The provisions of the conciliation agreement may be such as are agreed to by the Law Enforcement Bureau, complainant, and respondent.
  2. Effective Date. A conciliation agreement shall be deemed binding at the time that such agreement is executed by the Law Enforcement Bureau and by all complainants and respondents and other necessary parties entering into the agreement.
  3. Entry of Order by Commission. When a conciliation agreement has been fully executed, the Law Enforcement Bureau shall promptly forward such agreement to the Chair. The signature of the Chair on a conciliation agreement with the notation “SO ORDERED” shall be construed to be an order of the Commission pursuant to HRL § 8-115(d) directing the parties to such conciliation agreement to perform each and all of their obligations under such conciliation agreement in the time and manner set forth in such conciliation agreement. The Chair shall deliver the order of the Commission to the Law Enforcement Bureau for service upon the parties to the agreement.

§ 1-62 Requests for Assistance of Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution.

Upon the request of the Law Enforcement Bureau, complainant, or respondent, the Office of Mediation and Conflict Resolution shall endeavor to assist the Law Enforcement Bureau, complainant, and respondent to achieve a conciliated resolution of a complaint.

Subchapter G: Adjudication Procedures

§ 1-71 Referral of Complaints to OATH.

(a)  When the Law Enforcement Bureau determines that a case is ready for adjudication, the Bureau shall refer the case to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings (OATH) pursuant to this section. Except as otherwise provided herein, OATH's rules of practice relating to hearing and pre-hearing procedures (Title 48, Rules of the City of New York, chapter 1, and chapter 2, subchapter C) are hereby adopted by the Commission as the rules of practice and the procedure of the Commission and shall apply to adjudications referred to OATH by the Commission.
  1. The Law Enforcement Bureau shall serve the Notice of Referral upon the complainant, the respondent and any necessary party and file it with the OATH. The notice shall include the last known address and telephone number of each complainant, respondent, and necessary party. The notice shall state whether the respondent has complied with the requirement of 47 RCNY § 1-14 and, if not, whether the Law Enforcement Bureau seeks to have respondent held in default. The notices shall inform the complainant of his or her right to intervene pursuant to OATH’s rules (48 RCNY § 2-25). No material relating to the investigation, the finding of probable cause, or the substance of conciliation efforts shall be filed with OATH.

§ 1-72 Motions Relating to Requests by Law Enforcement Bureau Pursuant to Subchapter D.

In the event any party has failed to comply with any request by the Law Enforcement Bureau for documents or other information pursuant to Subchapter D of this Chapter, the Law Enforcement Bureau may make a motion to have the Chair order compliance with such request. Any party to whom such a request is made shall have an opportunity to submit to the Chair any objections to such request. The Chair may order compliance with such request or may order such other relief as the Chair deems just and proper. In the event any party has failed to comply with such an order compelling compliance with a request by the Law Enforcement Bureau for documents or other information, the Law Enforcement Bureau may make a motion to have the Chair make such orders or take such actions as are permitted by HRL § 8-118.

§ 1-73 Motions Relating to Sanctions for Failure to Comply With Order for Investigative Record-Keeping.

The Law Enforcement Bureau may make a motion to have the Chair make such orders or take such actions as are permitted by HRL § 8-118 in the event a respondent has failed to comply with an order for investigative record-keeping issued by the Chair pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-33.

§ 1-74 Interlocutory Review of Administrative Law Judge Decisions and Orders.

The Chair shall entertain an interlocutory challenge to a decision or order of an Administrative Law Judge where the presiding Administrative Law Judge certifies the question for review. Any question not certified by the presiding Administrative Law Judge may be raised by a party to the Commission in connection with the Commission’s review of a recommended decision and order in a case. Any challenge that is certified by the Administrative Law Judge and entertained by the Chair shall preclude further review by the Commission. The failure of a party to challenge a decision or order of an Administrative Law Judge other than a recommended decision and order, shall not preclude that party from making such challenge to the Commission in connection with the Commission’s review of a recommended decision and order in a case, provided that the party timely made its objection known to the Administrative Law Judge and that the grounds for such challenge shall be limited to those set forth to the Administrative Law Judge.

§ 1-75 Time for Commission Consideration of Recommended Decision and Order.

(a)  Generally. The Commission shall commence consideration of a case that is the subject of a recommended decision and order upon filing of the recommended decision and order with the Office of General Counsel.
  1. Recommended decisions and orders not completely disposing of a complaint. The Commission shall not commence consideration of a case that is the subject of a recommended decision and order which, if adopted, would not resolve the complaint in its entirety unless the Administrative Law Judge certifies the portion of the case proposed to be decided by the recommended decision and order to the Commission for immediate consideration. Dismissal of all or part of a case shall have the effect of a Recommended Decision and Order for the purpose of this section.

§ 1-76 Post-Hearing Comments.

Each party shall have twenty days after the commencement of Commission consideration of the recommended decision and order as provided in 47 RCNY § 1-75 to submit written comments to the Commission. The comments should raise any objections to the recommended decision and order. Comments shall be limited to the record below. Objections not raised in the comments will be deemed waived in any further proceedings. Comments shall be served upon all other parties and shall be filed with the Office of General Counsel. Parties shall apply to the General Counsel’s office for permission to submit reply comments. Upon application filed with the Office of General Counsel, the Chair may shorten or extend the time for comments or replies for good cause shown. Comments and replies shall be served upon the Commissioners by the Office of General Counsel.

Chapter 2: Unlawful Discriminatory Practices

§ 2-01 Definitions.

For purposes of this chapter,

Adverse employment action. “Adverse employment action” refers to any action that negatively affects the terms and conditions of employment.

Applicant. “Applicant” refers to persons seeking initial employment, and current employees who are seeking or being considered for promotions or transfers.

Article 23-A analysis. “Article 23-A analysis” refers to the process required under subdivisions 9, 10, 11, and 11-a of Section 8-107 of the Administrative Code to comply with Article 23-A of the New York Correction Law.

Article 23-A factors. “Article 23-A factors” refers to the factors that employers must consider concerning applicants’ and employees’ conviction histories under Section 753 of Article 23-A of the New York Correction Law.

Business day. “Business day” means any day except for Saturdays, Sundays, and all legal holidays of the City of New York.

Cisgender. “Cisgender” is a term used to describe a person whose gender identity conforms with their sex assigned at birth.

Commission. “Commission” means the New York City Commission on Human Rights.

Conditional offer of employment. “Conditional offer of employment,” as used in § 8-107(11-a) of the Administrative Code and 47 RCNY § 2-04 for purposes of establishing when an applicant’s criminal history can be considered by an employer, refers to an offer of employment, promotion or transfer. A conditional offer of employment can only be revoked based on one of the following:

   1. The results of a criminal background check, and only after the “Fair Chance Process,” as defined in this section, has been followed.

   2. The results of a medical exam as permitted by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101 et seq.

   3. Other information the employer could not have reasonably known before making the conditional offer if, based on the information, the employer would not have made the offer and the employer can show the information is material.

   For temporary help firms, a conditional offer is the offer to place an applicant in the firm’s labor pool, which is the group of individuals from which the firm selects candidates to send for job opportunities.

Consumer credit history. “Consumer credit history” is an individual’s credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, or payment history, as indicated by (i) a consumer credit report, which shall include any written or other communication of any information by a consumer reporting agency that bears on a consumer’s creditworthiness, credit standing, credit capacity or credit history; (ii) a consumer’s credit score; or (iii) information an employer obtains directly from the individual regarding (a) details about credit accounts, including the individual’s number of credit accounts, late or missed payments, charged-off debts, debt collection lawsuits, nonpayment lawsuits, items in collections, credit limit, prior credit report inquiries, or (b) bankruptcies, judgments, or liens.

Consumer reporting agency. “Consumer reporting agency” is a person or entity that provides reports containing information about an individual’s credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, or payment history. A consumer reporting agency includes any person or entity that, for monetary fees, dues, or on a cooperative nonprofit basis, engages in whole or in part in the practice of assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other information about consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports or investigative consumer reports to third parties. A person or entity need not regularly engage in assembling and evaluating consumer credit history to be considered a consumer reporting agency.

Conviction history. “Conviction history” refers to records of an individual’s conviction of a felony, misdemeanor, or unsealed violation as defined by New York law or federal law, or the law of the state in which the individual was convicted.

Criminal background check. “Criminal background check” refers to when an employer, employment agency or agent thereof orally or in writing:

   1. Asks a person whether or not they have a criminal record; or

   2. Searches for publicly available records, including through a third party, such as a consumer reporting agency, the Internet, or private databases, for a person’s criminal history.

Criminal history. “Criminal history” refers to records of an individual’s convictions, unsealed violations, non-convictions, and/or currently pending criminal case(s).

Direct relationship. “Direct relationship” refers to a finding that the nature of the criminal conduct underlying a conviction has a direct bearing on the fitness or ability of an applicant or employee to perform one or more of the duties or responsibilities necessarily related to the license, registration, permit, employment opportunity, or terms and conditions of employment in question.

Domestic partners. “Domestic partners” means persons who have a registered domestic partnership, which shall include any partnership registered pursuant to chapter 2 of title 3 of the Administrative Code, any partnership registered in accordance with executive order number 123, dated August 7, 1989, and any partnership registered in accordance with executive order number 48, dated January 7, 1993, and persons who are members of a marriage that is not recognized by the state of New York, a domestic partnership, or a civil union, lawfully entered into in another jurisdiction.

Employer. “Employer” refers to an employer as defined by § 8-102(5) of the Administrative Code.

Fair Chance Process. “Fair Chance Process” refers to the postconditional offer process mandated by § 8-107(11-a) of the Administrative Code when employers elect to withdraw a conditional offer of employment or deny a promotion or transfer based on an applicant’s conviction history.

Gender. “Gender” includes actual or perceived sex, gender identity, and gender expression including a person’s actual or perceived genderrelated self-image, appearance, behavior, expression, or other genderrelated characteristic, regardless of the sex assigned to that person at birth.

Gender expression. “Gender expression” is the representation of gender as expressed through one’s name, pronouns, clothing, hairstyle, behavior, voice, or similar characteristics. Gender expression may or may not conform to gender stereotypes, norms, and expectations in a given culture or historical period. Terms associated with gender expression include, but are not limited to, androgynous, butch, female/woman/feminine, femme, gender non-conforming, male/man/masculine, or non-binary.

Gender identity. “Gender identity” is the internal deeply-held sense of one’s gender which may be the same as or different from one’s sex assigned at birth. A person’s gender identity may be male, female, neither or both, i.e., non-binary. Terms associated with gender identity include, but are not limited to, agender, bigender, female/woman/womxn/feminine, female to male (FTM), gender diverse, gender fluid, gender queer, male/man/masculine, male to female (MTF), man of trans experience, pangender, or woman of trans experience.

Gender non-conforming. “Gender non-conforming” is a term used to describe a person whose gender expression differs from gender stereotypes, norms, and expectations in a given culture and historical period. Terms associated with gender non-conforming include, but are not limited to, androgynous, gender expansive, gender variant, or gender diverse.

High degree of public trust. “High degree of public trust” as used in 47 RCNY § 2-05 refers only to the following City agency positions: (i) agency heads and directors; (ii) Commissioner titles, including Assistant, Associate, and Deputy Commissioners; (iii) Counsel titles, including General Counsel, Special Counsel, Deputy General Counsel, and Assistant General Counsel, that involve high-level decision-making authority; (iv) Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer titles; and (v) any position reporting directly to the head of an agency.

Human Rights Law. “Human Rights Law” refers to Title 8 of the Administrative Code.

Intelligence information. “Intelligence information” means records and data compiled for the purpose of criminal investigation or counterterrorism, including records and data relating to the order or security of a correctional facility, reports of informants, investigators or other persons, or from any type of surveillance associated with an identifiable individual, or investigation or analysis of potential terrorist threats.

Inquiry. “Inquiry,” when used in connection with criminal history, refers to any oral or written question asked for the purpose of obtaining a person’s criminal history, including without limitation, questions in a job interview about an applicant’s criminal history, and any search for a person’s criminal history, including through the services of a third party, such as a consumer reporting agency.

Intersex. “Intersex” is a term used to refer to a person whose sex characteristics (chromosomes, hormones, gonads, genitalia, etc.) do not conform with a binary construction of sex as either male or female.

Licensing agency. “Licensing agency” refers to any agency or employee thereof that is authorized to issue any certificate, license, registration, permit or grant of permission required by the law of this state, its political subdivisions or instrumentalities as a condition for the lawful practice of any occupation, employment, trade, vocation, business or profession.

Members. “Members” means individuals belonging to any class of membership offered by the institution, club, or place of accommodation including, but not limited to, full membership, resident membership, nonresident membership, temporary membership, family membership, honorary membership, associate membership, membership limited to use of dining or athletic facilities, and membership of members’ minor children or spouses or domestic partners.

National security information. “National security information” means any knowledge relating to the national defense or foreign relations of the United States, regardless of its physical form or characteristics, that is owned by, produced by or for, or is under the control of the United States government and is defined as such by the United States government and its agencies and departments.

Non-binary. “Non-binary” is a term used to describe a person whose gender identity is not exclusively male or female. For example, some people have a gender identity that blends elements of being a man or a woman or a gender identity that is neither male nor female.

Non-conviction. “Non-conviction” means any arrest or criminal accusation, not currently pending, that was concluded in one of the following ways:

   1. Termination in favor of the individual, as defined by New York Criminal Procedure Law (“CPL”) Section 160.50, even if not sealed;

   2. Adjudication as a youthful offender, as defined by CPL Section 720.35, even if not sealed;

   3. Conviction of a non-criminal offense that has been sealed under CPL Section 160.55; or

   4. Convictions that have been sealed under CPL Section 160.58.

“Non-conviction” includes a disposition of a criminal matter under federal law or the law of another state that results in a status comparable to a “non-conviction” under New York law as defined in this section.

Payment directly from a nonmember. “Payment directly from a nonmember” means payment made to an institution, club or place of accommodation by a nonmember for expenses incurred by a member or nonmember for dues, fees, use of space, facilities, services, meals or beverages.

Payment for the furtherance of trade or business. “Payment for the furtherance of trade or business” means payment made by or on behalf of a trade or business organization, payment made by an individual from an account which the individual uses primarily for trade or business purposes, payment made by an individual who is reimbursed for the payment by the individual’s employer or by a trade or business organization, or other payment made in connection with an individual’s trade or business, including entertaining clients or business associates, holding meetings or other business-related events.

Payment indirectly from a nonmember. “Payment indirectly from a nonmember” means payment made to a member or nonmember by another nonmember as reimbursement for payment made to an institution, club or place of accommodation for expenses incurred for dues, fees, use of space, facilities, meals or beverages.

Payment on behalf of a nonmember. “Payment on behalf of a nonmember” means payment by a member or nonmember for expenses incurred for dues, fees, use of space, facilities, services, meals or beverages by or for a nonmember.

Per se violation. “Per se violation” refers to an action or inaction that, standing alone, without reference to additional facts, constitutes a violation of Title 8 of the Administrative Code, regardless of whether any adverse employment action was taken or any actual injury was incurred.

Regular meal service. “Regular meal service” means the provision, either directly or under a contract with another person, of breakfast, lunch, or dinner on three or more days per week during two or more weeks per month during six or more months per year.

Regularly receives payment. An institution, club or place of accommodation “regularly receives payment for dues, fees, use of space, facilities, services, meals or beverages directly or indirectly from or on behalf of nonmembers for the furtherance of trade or business” if it receives as many such payments during the course of a year as the number of weeks any part of which the institution, club or place of accommodation is available for use by members or non members per year.

Sex. “Sex” is a combination of several characteristics, including but not limited to, chromosomes, hormones, internal and external reproductive organs, facial hair, vocal pitch, development of breasts, and gender identity.

Statement. “Statement,” when used in connection with criminal history, refers to any communications made, orally or in writing, to a person for the purpose of obtaining criminal history, including, without limitation, stating that a background check is required for a position.

Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act. “Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act” refers to Local Law No. 37 of 2015, codified in §§ 8-102(29) and 8-107(9)(d), (24) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York.

Temporary help firms. “Temporary help firms” are businesses that recruit, hire, and assign their own employees to perform work or services for other organizations, to support or supplement the other organization’s workforce, or to provide assistance in special work situations such as, without limitation, employee absences, skill shortages, seasonal workloads, or special assignments or projects.

Terms and conditions. “Terms and conditions” means conditions of employment, including but not limited to hiring, termination, transfers, promotions, privileges, compensation, benefits, professional development and training opportunities, and job duties.

Trade secret. “Trade secret” means information that: (i) derives significant independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by other persons who can obtain economic value from its disclosure or use; (ii) is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy, both within the workplace and in the public; and (iii) can reasonably be said to be the end product of significant innovation. The term “trade secret” does not include general proprietary company information such as the information contained in handbooks and policies. The term “regular access to trade secrets” does not include access to or the use of client, customer, or mailing lists or other information regularly collected in the course of business. In considering whether information constitutes a trade secret for the purposes of an exemption under § 8-107(24)(b)(2)(E) of the Administrative Code, the Commission will consider various factors, including: (1) efforts made by the employer to protect and develop such information for the purpose of increasing competitive advantage; (2) whether the information was regularly shared with entry level and non-salaried employees and supervisors or managers of such employees; (3) what efforts would be required to replicate such information by someone knowledgeable within the field; (4) the value of the information to competitors; and (5) the amount of money and effort expended by the employer to develop the information.

Transgender. “Transgender” – sometimes shortened to “trans” – is a term used to describe a person whose gender identity does not conform with the sex assigned at birth.

§ 2-02 Severability.

If any provision of these Regulations or the application thereof is held invalid, the remainder of these Regulations shall not be affected by such holding and shall remain in full force and effect.

§ 2-03 Exemption of Certain Places of Public Accommodations in Relation to Sex Discrimination.

(a) Dressing rooms, toilets and shower rooms containing multiple facilities, and appurtenant rooms and facilities, and turkish baths and saunas, shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107, Paragraph 2* of the Administrative Code insofar as the use of such accommodations is restricted to one sex. This exemption shall not apply to swimming pools and other facilities for swimming.
  1. Rooming houses or residence hotels in which rental is restricted to one sex shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107, Paragraph 2* of the Administrative Code if such accommodation is regularly occupied on a permanent, as opposed to transient, basis by the majority of its guests.
  2. Lodging facilities in which the sleeping rooms and/or bathrooms are used in common, such as missions or dormitories designed for occupancy by members of the same sex, shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107, Paragraph 2 of the Administrative Code insofar as members of one sex are excluded from such accommodations.

§ 2-04 Prohibitions on Discrimination Based on Criminal History.

47 RCNY § 2-04(a) through 2-04(g) relate to prohibitions on discrimination in employment only. 47 RCNY § 2-04(h) relates to prohibitions on discrimination in licensing only. 47 RCNY § 2-04(i) relates to enforcement of violations of the Human Rights Law under this section in employment and licensing.

  1. Per Se Violations. The Commission has determined that the following are per se violations of §§ 8-107(10), (11) or (11-a) of the Human Rights Law (regardless of whether any adverse employment action is taken against an individual applicant or employee), unless an exemption listed under subdivision (g) of this section applies:

   (1) Declaring, printing, or circulating, or causing the declaration, printing, or circulation of, any solicitation, advertisement, policy or publication that expresses, directly or indirectly, orally or in writing, any limitation or specification in employment regarding criminal history. This includes, but is not limited to, advertisements and employment applications containing phrases such as: “no felonies,” “background check required,” and “must have clean record.”

   (2) Using applications for employment that require applicants to either grant employers permission to run a background check or provide information regarding criminal history prior to a conditional offer.

   (3) Making any statement or inquiry relating to the applicant’s pending arrest or criminal conviction before a conditional offer of employment is extended.

   (4) Using within the City a standard form, such as a boilerplate job application, intended to be used across multiple jurisdictions, that requests or refers to criminal history. Disclaimers or other language indicating that applicants should not answer specific questions if applying for a position that is subject to the Human Rights Law do not shield an employer from liability.

   (5) Failing to comply with requirements of § 8-107(11-a) of the Human Rights Law, when they are applicable: (1) to provide the applicant a written copy of any inquiry an employer conducted into the applicant’s criminal history; (2) to share with the applicant a written copy of the employer’s Article 23-A analysis; or (3) to hold the prospective position open for at least three business days from the date of an applicant’s receipt of both the inquiry and analysis.

   (6) Requiring applicants or employees to disclose an arrest that, at the time disclosure is required, has resulted in a non-conviction as defined in 47 RCNY § 2-01.

  1. Criminal Background Check Process. An employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not inquire about an applicant’s criminal history or request permission to run a criminal background check until after the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof makes the applicant a conditional offer. At no point may an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof seek or consider information pertaining to a non-conviction.

   (1) Employers, employment agencies, or agents thereof may not engage in any of the following actions prior to making a conditional offer to an applicant, unless otherwise exempt pursuant to 47 RCNY § 2-04(f):

      (i) Seeking to discover, obtain, or consider the criminal history of an applicant before a conditional offer of employment is made.

      (ii) Expressing any limitation or specifications based on criminal history in job advertisements. This includes, but is not limited to, any language that states or implies “no felonies,” “background check required,” or “clean records only.” Solicitations, advertisements, and publications encompass a broad variety of items, including, but not limited to, employment applications, fliers, hand-outs, online job postings, and materials distributed at employment fairs and by temporary help firms and job readiness programs.

      (iii) Using an application that contains a question about an applicant’s criminal history or pending criminal case or requests authorization to perform a background check.

      (iv) Making any inquiry or statement related to an applicant’s criminal history, whether written or oral, during a job interview.

      (v) Asserting, whether orally or in writing, that individuals with a criminal history, or individuals with certain convictions, will not be hired or considered.

      (vi) Conducting investigations into an applicant’s criminal history, including the use of publicly available records or the Internet for the purpose of learning about the applicant’s criminal history, whether such investigations are conducted by an employer or for an employer by a third party.

      (vii) Disqualifying an applicant for refusing to respond to any prohibited inquiry or statement about criminal history.

      (viii) In connection with an applicant, searching for terms such as, “arrest,” “mugshot,” “warrant,” “criminal,” “conviction,” “jail,” or “prison” or searching websites that purport to provide information regarding arrests, warrants, convictions or incarceration information for the purpose of obtaining criminal history.

  1. Inadvertent Discovery or Unsolicited Disclosure of Criminal History Prior to Conditional Offer. Inadvertent discovery by an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof or unsolicited disclosure by an applicant of criminal history prior to a conditional offer of employment does not automatically create employer liability. Liability is created when an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof uses the discovery or disclosure to further explore an applicant’s criminal history before having made a conditional offer or uses the information in determining whether to make a conditional offer.
  2. Information Regarding Conviction History Obtained After a Conditional Offer. After an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof extends a conditional offer to an applicant, an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may make inquiries into or statements about the applicant’s conviction history. An employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may (1) ask, either orally or in writing, whether an applicant has a criminal conviction history; (2) run a background check or, after receiving the applicant’s permission and providing notice, use a consumer reporting agency to do so; and (3) once an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof knows about an applicant’s conviction history, ask them about the circumstances that led to the conviction and gather information relevant to the Article 23-A factors. Upon receipt of an applicant’s conviction history, an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may elect to hire the individual. If the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof does not wish to withdraw the conditional offer, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof does not need to engage in the Article 23-A analysis.
  3. Withdrawing a Conditional Offer of Employment or Taking an Adverse Employment Action. Should an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof wish to withdraw its conditional offer of employment or take an adverse employment action based on an applicant’s or employee’s conviction history, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must (1) engage in an Article 23-A analysis, and (2) follow the Fair Chance Process. Employers, employment agencies, or agents thereof must affirmatively request information concerning clarification, rehabilitation, or good conduct while engaging in the Article 23-A analysis.

   (1) Article 23-A analysis.

      (i) An employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must consider the following factors in evaluating an applicant or employee under the Article 23-A analysis:

         (A) That New York public policy encourages the licensure and employment of people with criminal records;

         (B) The specific duties and responsibilities necessarily related to the prospective job;

         (C) The bearing, if any, of the conviction history on the applicant’s or employee’s fitness or ability to perform one or more of the job’s duties or responsibilities;

         (D) The time that has elapsed since the occurrence of the criminal offense that led to the applicant or employee’s criminal conviction, not the time since arrest or conviction;

         (E) The age of the applicant or employee when the criminal offense that led to their conviction occurred;

         (F) The seriousness of the applicant’s or employee’s conviction;

         (G) Any information produced by the applicant or employee, or produced on the applicant’s or employee’s behalf, regarding their rehabilitation and good conduct;

         (H) The legitimate interest of the employer in protecting property, and the safety and welfare of specific individuals or the general public.

      (ii) When considering the factors outlined above, a presumption of rehabilitation exists when an applicant or employee produces a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct.

      (iii) An employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not change the duties and responsibilities of a position because it learned of an applicant’s or employee’s conviction history, except as provided in subdivision (e)(2)(v) of this section.

      (iv) After evaluating the factors in subdivision(e)(1)(i) of this section, an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must then determine whether (1) there is a “direct relationship” between the applicant’s or employee’s conviction history and the prospective or current job, or (2) employing or continuing to employ the applicant would involve an unreasonable risk to property or to the safety or welfare of specific individuals or the general public.

         (A) To claim the “direct relationship exception,” an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must first draw some connection between the nature of the conduct that led to the conviction(s) and the position. If a direct relationship exists, the employer must evaluate the Article 23-A factors to determine whether the concerns presented by the relationship have been mitigated.

         (B) To claim the “unreasonable risk exception,” an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must consider and apply the Article 23-A factors to determine if an unreasonable risk exists.

      (v) If an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof, after weighing the required factors, cannot determine that either the direct relationship exemption or the unreasonable risk exemption applies, then the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not revoke the conditional offer or take any adverse employment action.

   (2) The Fair Chance Process: If, after an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof determines that either the direct relationship or unreasonable risk exemption applies, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof wishes to revoke the conditional offer or take an adverse employment action, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must first (1) provide a written copy of any inquiry made to collect information about criminal history to the applicant, (2) provide a written copy of the Article 23-A analysis to the applicant, (3) inform the applicant that they will be given a reasonable time to respond to the employer’s concerns, and (4) consider any additional information provided by the applicant during this period.

      (i) Providing a written copy of the inquiry. The employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must provide a complete and accurate copy of each and every piece of information relied on to determine that the applicant has a conviction history. This includes, but is not limited to, copies of consumer reporting agency reports, print outs from the Internet, records available publicly, and written summaries of any oral conversations, specifying if the oral information relied upon came from the applicant.

      (ii) Providing a written copy of the Article 23-A analysis performed by the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof.

         (A) Employers, employment agencies, or agents thereof who seek to revoke an applicant’s conditional offer or take an adverse employment action on the basis of an applicant’s criminal history must provide the applicant with the Fair Chance Notice below, which is available on the Commission’s website, or a comparable notice.

http://library.amlegal.com/nxt/gateway.dll?f=id$id=rules0-0-0-14640-img$3.0$p=

[Click here to view the Fair Chance Notice]

         (B) So long as the material substance does not change, the notice may be adapted to a format preferred by the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof to account for the specific circumstances involving the applicant and the adverse employment action or denial of employment. A Fair Chance Notice must (1) include specific facts that were considered pursuant to the Article 23-A analysis and the outcome, (2) articulate the employer’s, employment agency’s, or agent’s concerns and basis for determining that there is a direct relationship or an unreasonable risk, and (3) inform the applicant of their rights upon receipt of the notice, including how they can respond to the notice and the time frame within which they must respond.

      (iii) The employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must allow the applicant a reasonable time to respond to the employer’s concerns.

         (A) An employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must consider the following information when determining how much time is reasonable: (1) what additional information the applicant is purporting to gather and whether that additional information would change the outcome of the Article 23-A analysis; (2) why the applicant needs more time to gather the information; (3) how quickly the employer needs to fill the position; and (4) any other relevant information. A reasonable time shall be no less than 3 business days.

         (B) During this time, an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not permanently place another person in the applicant’s prospective or current position.

         (C) The applicant may provide oral or written evidence of rehabilitation, which, if provided, the employer, employment agency or agent thereof must consider in applying the Article 23-A factors.

         (D) The time period begins when the applicant receives both the Fair Chance Notice and a written copy of the inquiry.

      (iv) Response of employer, employment agency, or agent thereof to additional information.

         (A) If, within the reasonable time allowed by the employer as required by this subdivision, the applicant provides additional information related to the concerns identified by the employer, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must consider whether the additional information changes the Article 23-A analysis.

         (B) If the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof reviews the additional information and makes a determination not to hire the applicant or take an adverse employment action, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must relay that decision to the applicant in writing.

      (v) If an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof determines after conclusion of the Fair Chance Process to revoke the conditional offer of employment, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may consider whether any alternate positions are vacant and available to the applicant that would alleviate the concerns identified by the Article 23-A analysis, provided that failure to consider or provide an offer to fill an alternative position shall not be considered a violation of this section.

   (3) Errors, Discrepancies, and Misrepresentations.

      (i) If an applicant realizes that there is an error on a criminal background check, they must inform the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof of the error and request the necessary time to provide supporting documentation.

         (A) If the applicant demonstrates within the reasonable time allowed by the employer pursuant to this subdivision that the information is incorrect and the applicant has no conviction history, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not withdraw the conditional offer or take any adverse employment action on the basis of the applicant’s criminal history.

         (B) If the applicant demonstrates that the criminal history resulted in a non-conviction, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may not withdraw the conditional offer or take any adverse employment action on the basis of the applicant’s criminal history.

         (C) If the applicant demonstrates that the conviction history is different than what is reflected in the background check, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof must conduct the Article 23-A analysis based on the correct and current conviction history and must follow the Fair Chance Process.

      (ii) If a background check reveals that an applicant has intentionally failed to answer a legitimate question about their conviction history, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof may revoke the conditional offer or take an adverse employment action.

  1. Temporary Help Firms.

   (1) A temporary help firm is bound by the same pre-conditional offer requirements as other employers and must follow the Fair Chance Process if it wishes to withdraw a conditional offer based on the conviction history of an applicant. A “conditional offer” from a temporary help firm is an offer to place an applicant in the firm’s labor pool, from which the applicant may be sent on job assignments to the firm’s clients.

   (2) In order to evaluate job duties relevant to the conviction history under the Article 23-A analysis, a temporary help firm may only consider the minimum skill requirements and basic qualifications necessary for placement in its applicant pool.

   (3) Any employer who utilizes a temporary help firm to find applicants for employment must follow the Fair Chance Process and may not make any statements or inquiries about an applicant’s criminal history until after the applicant has been assigned to the employer by the temporary help firm.

   (4) A temporary help firm may not aid or abet an employer’s discriminatory hiring practices. A temporary help firm may not determine which candidates to refer to an employer based on an employer’s preference not to employ persons with a specific type of conviction or criminal history generally. A temporary help firm may not provide the applicant’s criminal history to prospective employers until after the employer has made a conditional offer to the applicant.

  1. Exemptions.

   (1) The Fair Chance Process mandated by § 8-107(11-a) of the Human Rights Law shall not apply to any actions taken by an employer or agent thereof with regard to an applicant for employment:

      (i) In a position where federal, state, or local law requires criminal background checks.

         (A) This exemption does not apply to an employer authorized, but not required, to check for criminal backgrounds.

         (B) This exemption does not exempt an employer from the requirements of § 8-107(10) of the Human Rights Law.

      (ii) In a position where Federal, State, or Local law bars employment of individuals based on criminal history.

         (A) This exemption applies to particular positions where the Federal, State or Local law bars employment with respect to a particular type of conviction. In such cases, an employer or agent thereof may: (1) notify applicants of the specific mandatory bar to employment prior to a conditional offer; (2) inquire at any time during the application process whether an applicant has been convicted of the specific crime that is subject to the mandatory bar to employment; and (3) disqualify any applicant or employee with such criminal history without following the Fair Chance Process.

         (B) This exemption does not apply where the employer’s decision about whether to hire or promote an applicant based on their criminal history is discretionary. The fact that a position requires licensure or approval by a government agency does not by itself exempt the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof from the Fair Chance Process. When hiring for such a position, if the exemption in subdivision (g)(1)(i) or (g)(1)(ii)(A) does not apply, before making a conditional offer the employer may only ask whether the applicant has the necessary license or approval or whether they can obtain it within a reasonable period of time.

      (iii) In positions regulated by self-regulatory organizations as defined in Section 3(a)(26) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, 15 U.S.C. § 78a, where the rules or regulations promulgated by such organizations require criminal background checks or bar employment based on criminal history. This exemption includes positions for which applicants are not required to be registered with a self-regulatory organization, when the applicant nevertheless either chooses to become registered while in the position or elects to maintain their prior registration.

      (iv) In positions as police and peace officers, working for law enforcement agencies, and for other exempted city agencies, specifically:

         (A) As a police officer or peace officer, as those terms are defined in subdivisions thirty-three and thirty-four of Section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law;

         (B) At a New York City law enforcement agency, including but not limited to the City Police Department, Fire Department, Department of Correction, Department of Investigation, Department of Probation, the Division of Youth and Family Services, the Business Integrity Commission, and the District Attorneys’ offices in each borough; or

         (C) In a position listed in the determinations of personnel published as a Commissioner’s calendar item and listed on the website of the Department of Citywide Administrative Services as exempt because the Commissioner of Citywide Administrative Services has determined that the position involves law enforcement; is susceptible to bribery, or corruption; or entails the provision of services to or the safeguarding of people who, because of age, disability, infirmity or other condition, are vulnerable to abuse. Once the Department of Citywide Administrative Services exempts a position, an applicant may be asked about their conviction history at any time; however, applicants who are denied employment because of their conviction history must receive a written copy of the Article 23-A analysis.

   (2) Standard of Proof: It shall be an affirmative defense that any action taken by an employer or agent thereof is permissible pursuant to paragraph 1 of this subdivision.

  1. Licenses, Registrations, and Permits.

   (1) Licensing agencies may not deny any license, registration or permit to any applicant, or act adversely upon any holder of a license, registration or permit, based on criminal history in violation of Article 23-A of the New York Corrections Law.

   (2) Prior to denying or taking any adverse action against an individual applying for a license, registration or permit based on their conviction history, the licensing agency must evaluate the candidate using the Article 23-A analysis.

   (3) A finding that an applicant lacks “good moral character” cannot be based on an individual’s criminal history when such an action is in violation of Article 23-A of the Correction Law.

   (4) Under no circumstances may an individual applying for a license, registration or permit, be questioned about nonconvictions, nor can any adverse actions or denials be made based on non-convictions.

   (5) Exemption as to licenses, registrations, and permits:

      (i) Paragraphs (1) through (4) of this subdivision do not apply to licensing activities in relation to the regulation of explosives, pistols, handguns, rifles, shotguns, or other firearms and deadly weapons.

      (ii) Any agency authorized to issue a license, registration, or permit may consider age, disability, or criminal history as a criterion for determining eligibility or continuing fitness for a license, registration or permit, when specifically required to do so pursuant to Federal, State, or Local law.

  1. Enforcement and Penalties.

   (1) There is a rebuttable presumption that an employer, employment agency, or agent thereof was motivated by an applicant’s criminal history if it revokes a conditional offer of employment without following the Fair Chance Process. This presumption can be rebutted by demonstrating that the conditional offer was revoked based on: (1) the results of a medical exam in situations in which such exams are permitted by the American with Disabilities Act; (2) information the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof could not have reasonably known before the conditional offer if, based on the information, the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof would not have made the offer and the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof can show that the information is material; or (3) evidence that the employer, employment agency, or agent thereof did not have knowledge of the applicant’s criminal history before revoking the conditional offer.

   (2) Early Resolution for Commission-initiated complaints regarding certain per se violations.

      (i) Early Resolution is an expedited settlement option that is available to respondents in certain circumstances that allows them to immediately admit liability and comply with a penalty in lieu of litigating the matter.

      (ii) Except as provided in subparagraph (iii) below, the Law Enforcement Bureau will offer Early Resolution for Commission-initiated complaints of per se violations under the following circumstances: (1) the respondent has committed a per se violation as defined in 47 RCNY § 2-04(a); (2) there are no other pending or current allegations against the respondent concerning violations of the Human Rights Law; (3) the respondent has 50 or fewer employees at the time of the alleged violation; and (4) the respondent has had no more than one violation of the Human Rights Law in the past three years.

      (iii) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commission retains discretion to proceed with a full investigation and a referral to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings when the offer of Early Resolution will not serve the public interest. Factors that indicate that an Early Resolution is not in the public interest include, without limitation: (1) the respondent has had prior contact with the Commission from which an inference of willfulness regarding the violation may be inferred; (2) the respondent works with vulnerable communities; or (3) the Commission has reason to believe discrimination is rampant in respondent’s industry. For purposes of this section, a violation of any provision of the Human Rights Law that resulted in an admission pursuant to Early Resolution, conciliation or other settlement agreement, or a finding of liability issued after a hearing or trial pursuant to a complaint filed with or by the Commission shall be considered a past violation.

      (iv) Early Resolution: Notice, Penalties and Procedure.

         (A) A respondent shall be served with a copy of the Early Resolution Notice simultaneously with service of the complaint.

         (B) The Notice shall state that the respondent has 90 days to answer a complaint in which the respondent has been offered the option of Early Resolution, and that there will be no extensions of time granted.

         (C) The Notice shall inform the respondent of their right to either: (1) admit liability and agree to the affirmative relief and penalty, or (2) file an answer to the complaint in compliance with 47 RCNY § 1-14, except that the time to respond shall be 90 days instead of 30.

         (D) An Early Resolution penalty shall include: (1) a mandatory and free training provided by the Commission; (2) a requirement that the respondent post a notice of rights under the Human Rights Law; and (3) a monetary fine as determined by the penalty schedule outlined in paragraph (E) of this subdivision. The Notice shall inform the respondent that a private individual aggrieved by the same violation may also file an independent complaint with the Commission or may bring a court action.

         (E) Fines will be assessed according to the following penalty schedule:

Employer Size(at the time of the violation) 1st Violation 2nd Violation(within 3 years of the resolution date of the first violation)
4 - 9 employees $500.00 $1,000.00
10 - 20 employees $1,000.00 $5,000.00
21 - 50 employees $3,500.00 $10,000.00
** Distinct and contemporaneous violations will be counted separately for the purpose of calculating a monetary penalty. For example, an employer who has between four and nine employees and is using a discriminatory advertisement in violation of 47 RCNY § 2-04(a)(1) and an application that references criminal history in violation of 47 RCNY § 2-04(a)(2) will be charged with two separate violations of $500.00 each. However, multiple violations of one section, for example, posting a discriminatory advertisement on three different websites, will be counted as one violation for the purpose of assessing a penalty under this section.    

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         (F) If the employer believes that the employer size used to assess the imposed penalty is incorrect, the employer may call the number listed on the Early Resolution Notice.

      (v) Admission of Liability. An admission of liability must be returned to the Commission in the manner prescribed in the Early Resolution Notice. Once the admission is received, the Law Enforcement Bureau shall promptly forward such agreement to the Chair. The signature of the Chair with the notation “SO ORDERED” shall be construed to be a final order of the Commission. A copy of such order shall be served upon the respondent.

      (vi) Contesting Liability and Filing an Answer.

         (A) Notwithstanding any provision of 47 RCNY § 1-61 or 47 RCNY § 1-62, if a respondent elects to deny liability and contest the allegations in the complaint, the respondent shall file an answer and upon receipt of the answer, the Law Enforcement Bureau shall refer the case to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings for a hearing pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71.

         (B) For purposes of a hearing, the case will proceed in accordance with 48 RCNY Chapter 2, subchapter C.

      (vii) Failure to Respond.

         (A) If a respondent fails to respond within 90 days to a complaint accompanied by an Early Resolution Notice, all allegations in the complaint will be deemed admitted unless good cause to the contrary is shown pursuant to § 8-111(c) of the Human Rights Law.

         (B) Upon default, the Law Enforcement Bureau may refer the case to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71 and, in a written motion pursuant to 48 RCNY Chapter 1, seek an expedited trial and issuance of a report and recommendation that finds respondent in default and recommend the affirmative relief and penalties requested by the Law Enforcement Bureau. The motion papers will include: all supporting evidence; a copy of the complaint and any additional documentation sent to the respondent; the Early Resolution Notice; and proof of service of the motion.

      (viii) Relief from Default in an Early Resolution Case. At any time prior to the issuance of a decision and order, the respondent may move for relief from default.

  1. Criminal Record Discrimination in Obtaining Credit. No person may ask about or take any adverse action based on the nonconviction history of an individual in connection with an application or evaluation for credit.
  2. Employers Seeking the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (“WOTC”). Employers who wish to claim the WOTC credit are not exempt from this chapter or the Fair Chance Act. Employers may, however, require an applicant to complete IRS form 8850 and U.S. Department of Labor Form 9061 before a conditional offer is made so long as the information gathered is used solely for the purpose of applying for the WOTC.

§ 2-05 Prohibitions on Discrimination Based on Credit by Employers, Labor Organizations, Employment Agencies, and Agencies Authorized To Issue Licenses, Registrations, or Permits.

(a) Per Se Violations. The following are per se violations of §§ 8-107(9)(d) and 8-107(24) of the Administrative Code (regardless of whether any adverse employment or licensing action is taken against an individual applicant, licensee, or permittee), except where an exemption applies pursuant to subdivision (c) of this section:

   (1) Requesting consumer credit history from an applicant, licensee, or permittee.

   (2) Requesting consumer credit history regarding applicants, licensees, or permittees from a consumer reporting agency.

   (3) Using consumer credit history for employment, licensing, or permitting purposes.

   (4) Requesting or requiring applicants for employment, licenses, or permits to consent to the disclosure of their consumer credit history to the employer.

  1. Presumptive Violations. It shall be a rebuttable presumption that posting or circulating any solicitation indicating that the employer, labor organization, employment agency, or licensing agency will use consumer credit history for employment, licensing, or permitting purposes constitutes a violation of §§ 8-107(9)(d) and 8-107(24) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York, except where an exemption applies pursuant to subdivision (c) of this section.
  2. Exemptions Under the Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act.

   (1) Employers may require or use for employment purposes an applicant’s or employee’s consumer credit history when required to do so for specific positions or titles under state or Federal law or regulations, or rules or regulations promulgated by self-regulatory organizations as defined in Section 3(a)(26) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This exemption includes positions in which applicants or employees are not required to be registered with a self-regulatory organization but where the applicant or employee nevertheless either chooses to become registered while in the position or elects to maintain their prior registration.

   (2) Agencies may request and use an applicant’s, licensee’s, or permittee’s consumer credit history for licensing or permitting purposes when required to do so under State or Federal law or regulations.

   (3) The following positions are exempt from the Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act:

      (i) Police officers or peace officers, as those terms are defined in subdivisions thirty-three and thirty-four of Section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law, respectively.

      (ii) Positions with a law enforcement or investigative function at the Department of Investigation.

      (iii) Positions subject to background investigation by the Department of Investigation, provided however that the appointing agency may not use consumer credit history obtained by the Department of Investigation for employment purposes unless the position is an appointed position and a high degree of public trust, as defined in 47 RCNY § 2-01, has been reposed in the position.

      (iv) Positions requiring bonding under City, State, or Federal law or regulation. An exemption will not apply where bonding is simply permitted, but not required, by City, State, or Federal law or regulation. Only positions where bonding is required by law are exempt.

      (v) Positions requiring security clearance under Federal or State law. This exemption is applicable only when such security clearance is legally required for the person to fulfill the duties of the position in question.

      (vi) Non-Clerical positions having regular access to trade secrets, intelligence information, or national security information as defined in 47 RCNY § 2-01.

      (vii) Positions in which the individual regularly has: (A) signatory authority over third-party funds or third-party assets that are valued at $10,000 or more; or (B) fiduciary responsibility to an employer who has granted the employee signatory authority to enter into financial agreements valued at $10,000 or more on behalf of the employer. Signatory authority shall mean final authority, not subject to approval, delegated by an employer or third party to commit the employer or third party to a binding agreement. This exemption does not apply to positions for which the $10,000 threshold can be met only by aggregating the value for multiple assets or agreements over which the position holds signatory authority or fiduciary responsibility.

      (viii) Positions with regular duties that allow the employee to modify digital security systems established to prevent the unauthorized use of the employer’s or client’s networks. For purposes of this provision, a digital security system refers to an organization’s security program that is designed to ensure information, assets, and technologies are not accessible by unauthorized parties outside of the employer or its clients.

   (4) Evaluation of exemptions and burdens of proof.

      (i) All exemptions to the prohibitions on credit discrimination must be construed narrowly.

      (ii) It shall be an affirmative defense that any action taken by an employer or agent thereof is permissible pursuant to this subdivision, and the burden shall be on the employer, labor organization, employment agency, or licensing agency to prove the exemption’s applicability by a preponderance of the evidence.

      (iii) Exemptions apply only to individual positions.

  1. Early Resolution for Commission-Initiated Complaints Regarding Certain Per Se Violations.

   (1) Early Resolution is an expedited settlement option that is available to respondents in certain circumstances that allows them to immediately admit liability and accept a penalty in lieu of litigating the matter.

   (2) Except as provided in paragraph (3) below, the Law Enforcement Bureau will offer Early Resolution for Commission-initiated complaints of per se violations under the following circumstances:

      (i) The respondent has committed a per se violation pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section;

      (ii) There are no other pending or current allegations against the respondent concerning violations of title 8 of the Administrative Code;

      (iii) The respondent has 50 or fewer employees at the time of the alleged violation; and

      (iv) The respondent has been held liable for no more than one violation of Title 8 of the Administrative Code in the 3 years preceding the filing of the complaint. For purposes of this provision, a violation of any provision of title 8 of the Administrative Code that resulted in an admission pursuant to Early Resolution, conciliation, or other settlement agreement, or a finding of liability issued after a hearing or trial pursuant to a complaint filed with or by the Commission, shall be considered a past violation.

   (3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commission retains discretion to proceed with a full investigation and a referral to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings when the Law Enforcement Bureau determines that an offer of Early Resolution will not serve the public interest. Factors that indicate that an Early Resolution is not in the public interest include, without limitation:

      (i) The respondent has had prior contact with the Commission, including without limitation, formal and informal complaints, investigations, and trainings, and workshops conducted by the Commission, from which an inference may be made that the alleged violation was willful.

      (ii) The respondent works with vulnerable communities.

      (iii) The Commission has reason to believe discrimination is significant in respondent’s industry.

   (4) Early Resolution Notice.

      (i) A respondent will be served with a copy of the Early Resolution Notice simultaneously with service of the complaint.

      (ii) The Early Resolution Notice will state that the respondent has 90 days to answer a complaint in which the respondent has been offered the option of Early Resolution, and that there will be no extensions of time granted.

      (iii) The Early Resolution Notice will inform the respondent of its right to either: (A) admit liability and agree to the proposed affirmative relief and penalty, or (B) file an answer to the complaint in compliance with 47 RCNY § 1-14, except that the time to respond will be 90 days instead of 30 days.

   (5) Early Resolution Penalties.

      (i) An Early Resolution penalty includes: (A) a mandatory and free training provided by the Commission; (B) a requirement that the respondent post a notice of rights under Title 8 of the Administrative Code; and (C) a monetary fine as determined by the penalty schedule outlined in Subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph. The Early Resolution Notice will inform the respondent that a private individual aggrieved by the same violation may also file an independent complaint with the Commission or may bring a court action.

      (ii) Early Resolution fines will be assessed according to the following penalty schedule:

Employer Size(at the time of the violation) 1st Violation 2nd Violation (within 3 years of the resolution date of the first violation)
4 - 9 $500.00 $1,000.00
10 - 20 $1,000.00 $5,000.00
21 - 50 $3,500.00 $10,000.00
** Distinct and contemporaneous violations will be counted separately for the purpose of calculating a monetary penalty. For example, an employer who has 4 - 9 employees who requests consumer credit history from an applicant orally in violation of 47 RCNY § 2-05(a)(1) and requires that same applicant to sign a waiver authorizing a credit check in violation of 47 RCNY § 2-05(a)(4) will be charged with two separate violations of $500.00 each. However, multiple violations of one section, for example, posting a discriminatory advertisement on three different websites, will be counted as one violation for the purpose of assessing a penalty under this section.    

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      (iii) If the employer believes that the employer size used to assess the imposed penalty is incorrect, the employer may call the number listed on the Early Resolution Notice.

   (6) Admission of Liability in an Early Resolution Case. An admission of liability must be returned to the Commission in the manner prescribed in the Early Resolution Notice. Once the admission is received, the Law Enforcement Bureau will promptly forward it to the Chair. The signature of the Chair with the notation “SO ORDERED” constitutes the final order of the Commission. A copy of such order will be served upon the respondent.

   (7) Contesting Liability and Filing an Answer in an Early Resolution Case. Notwithstanding any provision of 47 RCNY § 1-61 or 47 RCNY § 1-62, if a respondent elects to deny liability and contest the allegations in the complaint, the respondent shall file an answer and, upon receipt of the answer, the Law Enforcement Bureau will refer the case to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings for a hearing pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71. The hearing will be conducted in accordance with Subchapter C of 48 RCNY Chapter 2.

   (8) Failure to Respond in an Early Resolution Case.

      (i) If a respondent fails to respond to a complaint accompanied by an Early Resolution Notice within 90 days, all allegations in the complaint will be deemed admitted unless good cause to the contrary is shown, pursuant to § 8-111(c) of the Administrative Code.

      (ii) If a respondent fails to respond to a complaint accompanied by an Early Resolution Notice within 90 days, the Law Enforcement Bureau may refer the case to the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings pursuant to 47 RCNY § 1-71 and, in a written motion pursuant to 48 RCNY § 1-50, seek an expedited trial and issuance of a report and recommendation that finds respondent in default and recommends the affirmative relief and penalties requested by the Law Enforcement Bureau. The motion papers will include all supporting evidence, a copy of the complaint, the Early Resolution Notice, and proof of service.

   (9) Relief From Default in an Early Resolution Case. At any time prior to the issuance of a decision and order, the respondent may move for relief from default.

§ 2-06 Prohibition on Discrimination Based on Gender.

The following requirements apply with respect to Title 8 of the Administrative Code’s prohibition on unlawful discriminatory practices based on gender:

  1. Deliberate Refusal to Use an Individual’s Self-Identified Name, Pronoun or Title. A covered entity’s deliberate refusal to use an individual’s self-identified name, pronoun and gendered title constitutes a violation of § 8-107 of the Administrative Code where the refusal is motivated by the individual’s gender. This is the case regardless of the individual’s sex assigned at birth, anatomy, gender, medical history, appearance, or the sex indicated on the individual’s identification except in the limited circumstance where Federal, State, or Local law requires otherwise (e.g., for purposes of employment eligibility verification with the Federal government). Asking someone in good faith their name or which pronoun they use is not a violation of the Human Rights Law.

   a. Examples of violations.

      i. Deliberately calling a transgender woman “Mr.” after she has made clear that she uses female titles. Deliberately using the pronoun “he” for a non-binary person who is perceived as male but has indicated that they identify as non-binary and use the pronouns “they,” “them,” and “theirs.”

      ii. Conditioning an individual’s use of their self-identified name on obtaining a court-ordered name change or providing identification in that name. For example, a covered entity may not refuse to call a transgender student by her self-identified name because her selfidentified name does not appear on her birth certificate.

      iii. Asking or requiring an individual to provide information about their medical history or proof of having undergone medical procedures to use their self-identified name, pronoun, or title.

      iv. Refusing to use an employee’s self-identified name in their email account.

      v. Failing or refusing to include a patient’s self-identified name and self-reported gender in their medical record, resulting in the patient being misgendered by staff, even if a patient’s sex assigned at birth or gender transition may be recorded for the purpose of providing medical care.

  1. Refusing to Allow Individuals to Use Single-Gender Facilities or Participate in Single-Gender Programs Consistent with their Gender Identity. Covered entities must allow individuals to use single-gender facilities – such as bathrooms, locker rooms, or hospital rooms – and participate in single-gender programs consistent with their gender identity, regardless of their sex assigned at birth, anatomy, medical history, appearance, or the sex indicated on their identification.

   a. It is not a defense to a charge of violating the Human Rights Law that some people, including, for example, customers, other program participants, tenants, or employees, may object to sharing a facility or participating in a program with a transgender, non-binary, or gender non-conforming person. Such objections are not a lawful reason to deny access to that transgender, non-binary, or gender non-conforming individual.

   b. Examples of violations.

      i. Prohibiting a person from participating in the singlegender program consistent with their gender identity or expression because they do not conform to gender stereotypes.

      ii. Requiring a gender non-conforming person to provide proof of their gender to access the single-gender program or facility corresponding to their gender.

      iii. Requiring a non-binary person to use a single-occupancy restroom instead of a shared bathroom.

      iv. Barring a transgender girl from participating in a singlegender after-school program out of concern that she will make other students uncomfortable.

      v. Forbidding a transgender person from sharing a room with people of the same gender in a residential treatment facility with single-gender shared rooms.

  1. Imposing Different Dress or Grooming Standards Based on Gender. Covered entities may not require dress codes or uniforms, or apply grooming or appearance standards, that impose different requirements for individuals based on their gender.

   a. It is not a defense to a charge of discrimination that a covered entity has a violative dress code because it is catering to the preferences of its customers or clients.

   b. Examples of violations.

      i. Requiring different uniforms for men and women. While covered entities may provide different uniform options that are typically associated with men and women, it is unlawful to require an employee to wear one style instead of the other.

      ii. Permitting only female students to wear makeup or jewelry to school.

      iii. Requiring only men to wear ties to dine at a restaurant.

   c. Actors may be required to wear gender-specific costumes if required by a role.

  1. Covered Entities Must Provide Equal Employee Benefits Regardless of Gender. Subject to § 8-107(1)(e), covered entities offering benefit plans must offer benefits equally to all employees regardless of gender and may not provide health benefit plans that deny, limit or exclude services based on gender. To be nondiscriminatory with respect to gender, health benefit plans may not exclude coverage for transgender care, also known as transition-related care or gender-affirming care.

   a. Examples of violations.

      i. Offering health benefits that exclude coverage for procedures based on gender. For example, offering health benefits that cover prostate cancer screening for cisgender men but not for transgender women or nonbinary individuals.

      ii. Offering health benefits that exclude from coverage, or limit coverage for, health care related to gender transition, including, but not limited to, hormone replacement therapy, psychological or psychiatric treatment, hormone suppressers, voice training, or surgery.

      iii. Giving twelve weeks of paid parental leave to mothers but only two weeks to fathers. While a differential in parental leave may be permissible if based on physical recovery from childbirth, it may not be premised on a parent’s gender.

      iv. Employers selected benefit plan offering health benefits that deem certain medical procedures available to only one sex, thereby excluding intersex people who may be registered under another.

  1. Gender May Not Be the Basis for Refusing a Request for Accommodation. Gender may not be the basis for a covered entity to refuse, withhold, or deny a request for accommodation for disability or other request for changes to the terms and conditions of an individual’s employment, participation in a program, or use of a public accommodation, which may include additional medical or personal leave or schedule changes. Covered entities must treat leave requests to address medical or health care needs related to an individual’s gender identity in the same manner as requests for all other medical conditions. Covered entities must provide reasonable accommodations to individuals undergoing gender transition, including medical leave for medical and counseling appointments, surgery and recovery from gender affirming procedures, surgeries and treatments as they would for any other medical condition.

   a. Examples of violations.

      i. Providing a reasonable accommodation for a cisgender woman undergoing medically necessary reconstructive breast surgery but refusing to provide the same accommodation to a transgender woman undergoing the same medically necessary surgery.

      ii. Requesting medical documentation to verify leave time from transgender or non-binary employees or participants, but not cisgender employees or participants.

  1. Places or providers of public accommodation may be granted an exemption to the provisions of this subdivision relating to unlawful discriminatory practices based on gender under § 8-107(4)(b) of the Administrative Code.

Chapter 3: Age Discrimination Exemptions For Public Accommodations

§ 3-01 Definitions.

Advantages. “Advantages” shall include but not be limited to priority services, discounts in pricing or anything of monetary value extended on the basis of a person’s age.

Restrictions. “Restrictions” shall be construed to mean any limitation in access or services on the basis of a person’s age.

§ 3-02 Age-Based Extension of Advantages in Public Accommodations.

Any and all reasonable advantages extended in access to services provided by a place or provider of public accommodation on the basis of a person’s age shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York.

§ 3-03 Age-Based Restrictions in Public Accommodations.

(a) Any and all restrictions in access to public accommodations on the basis of a person's age which are mandated by federal, state or local law shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York.
  1. Any and all restrictions on the basis of a person’s age in access to public accommodations displaying motion pictures with ratings by the Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York.
  2. Any and all reasonable restrictions in access to public accommodations imposed upon minors to prevent physical harm to such persons shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York.
  3. Any restrictions in access to or services provided by a place or provider of public accommodation based on age which allows the owner, lessee, proprietor, manager, superintendent, agent or employee of a place or provider of public accommodation to refuse to enter into a contract which under the laws of the State of New York may be disaffirmed on the ground of infancy shall be exempt from the provisions of § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code.

§ 3-04 Applications for Exemption from § 8-107(4)(a) Administrative Code.

The owner, lessee, proprietor, manager, superintendent or agent of a place or provider of public accommodation may make an application for exemption of an age-based restriction on access to or services provided by such public accommodation which would otherwise be prohibited pursuant to § 8-107(4)(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York and 47 RCNY § 3-03. Such application shall be made in writing to the office of the chairperson of the New York City Commission on Human Rights. The application shall set forth the specific basis for the exemption sought together with any supporting evidence. The chairperson may grant such exemption if he or she determines that the exemption promotes the health, safety or well-being of the public, or prevents physical harm to the property or premises of a place of public accommodation, or undue disruption of the quiet enjoyment of a place of public accommodation and is not inconsistent with the goals and policies of the City Human Rights Law. The decision of the Chairperson shall be final.